CM – Spielberg’s dazzling West Side story proves that the controversial musical still has something to say

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If Stephen Sondheim hadn’t died just a week before Steven Spielberg’s dazzling remake of West Side Story hit theaters, the film’s reception might have felt different. Probably less elegiac, with more room for disrespect for the widely popular musical that its reluctant lyricist would no doubt have welcomed. Sondheim viewed his contribution to the score as a somewhat embarrassing youth work and said he only accepted the job because his mentor and surrogate father Oscar Hammerstein encouraged him to gain experience setting texts to foreign music, in this case the superstar conductor and Composer Leonard Bernsteins.

But the loss of the songwriter who was supposed to invent a new kind of musical theater, and the ensuing discussions about the history of the form that we had over the past week, also put a multitude of existing ones back on the table Questions in a New Light: Questions about what it means to adapt West Side Story in 2021, 60 years after Robert Wise’s Oscar-winning film adaptation and 64 years since the play’s Broadway debut. Who is allowed to tell whose story and in which language? Is a musical about interracial violence conceived and created by four white men (Sondheim, Bernstein, the librettist of the original series Arthur Laurents and its director and choreographer Jerome Robbins) and by more white men (Spielberg, screenwriter Tony Kushner.) Best for the 21st, choreographer Justin Peck)? A productive engagement with these debates, which not only recreates the same old critical battles as the endless turf wars of the jets and the sharks, requires consideration of the long and eventful history of the property. The dispute over the representation of race and ethnicity in the West Side Story is as old as… West Side Story.

Like everyone else, the stage show was created by Jerome Robbins, who in 1947 came up with the idea of ​​a love story in the style of Romeo and Juliet had gone to Bernstein and Laurents for the first time against the backdrop of the New York slums. Robbins ‘idea was to realize the forbidden romance between an Irish Catholic boy and an Eastern European Jewish girl, two children of immigrants who were separated by their families’ prejudices. The piece was to take place on the Lower East Side and was to be called East Side Story.

After a first draft was written, the project was discarded when the creators decided that it was too close in theme and story to a 1922 published one Hit piece was called Abie’s Irish Rose. That show had since grown into a long-running radio series, which was discontinued in 1945 because of listeners’ objections to its broad ethnic stereotyping, a holdover from the vaudeville-era stage comedy that seemed insultingly dated after World War II. A 1946 film version starring Bing Crosby was controversial for a similar reason: Variety described the story as « a current outsider » at a time when « minorities are becoming political footballs, all the energies of post-war rehabilitation on better understanding seem to concentrate ”.

The decision to turn the warring Montagues and Capulets from West Side Story into white and Puerto Rican street gangs was initially intended as a socially progressive gesture, as a way of addressing developments within music theater with problems in the Connect the outside world. The radicalism of the show for the audience at the time was not in its cast – apart from Chita Rivera, who launched the role of Anita, there was only one other Puerto Rican actor in the Broadway cast – but in its dark theme, hers Fusion of classical and modern musical theater styles and the central importance of dance for storytelling.

The film adaptation of 1961, which Robbins and Robert Wise co-directed, had an even clearer social message. Wise was a Hollywood veteran who was nominated for an Academy Award for editing Citizen Kane and would later direct everything from The Sound of Music to Star Trek: The Motion Picture. He was known for his sensitive handling of « subject » films, which, like Harry Belafonte’s crime thriller Odds Against Tomorrow, sometimes explicitly dealt with racism and racist violence. Yet the cast of brown-faced white actors in almost every Puerto Rican role in West Side Story went unnoticed in the mainstream press, except when it was praised: Time magazine review sighed that “Natalie Wood has the right dark glow as a Latin American heroine . ”

The audience also seemed largely unimpressed by the racial politics of the film. West Side Story was nominated for 11 Academy Awards, won 10, and became the highest-grossing film of 1961. If anything, West Side Story has been viewed by most critics as a step forward in bringing urban reality to life: The Der The Chicago Tribune reviewer described the film’s mission as « social meaning with song and dance ».

In the six decades since then, thinking about race and representation on stage and screen has changed radically and welcomed. The ubiquity of West Side Story as a high school production began to wane as the awkwardness of the racially blind casting for that particular show became more apparent. A 2009 Broadway revival got Lin-Manuel Miranda, who had just won the Tony for his Latin American hip-hop musical In the Heights, to write versions of the lyrics to be performed in Spanish. When Spielberg approached Kushner for the first time in 2014 with the idea of ​​rewriting the book The West Side Story, the playwright was initially concerned with presenting the story to a modern audience with a more differentiated understanding and a more differentiated approach to issues such as racism, Making Poverty and Gentrification Relevant, and Assimilation.

The reinterpretation of the story by Spielberg and Kushner in terms of its broader historical context makes their ambitions known from the outset with an initial take on both the birds-eye view of the 1961 film as well as referring to the beginning of Citizen Kane. The camera, guided by long-time Spielberg cameraman Janusz Kaminski with his usual flowing kinetics, sails over the rubble of a recently demolished construction site and then tips a chain-link fence that surrounds the property. A sign on the fence indicates that the wrecking ball-razed blocks of flats will one day become the upscale collection of cultural institutions known as Lincoln Center.

The following movie feels both familiar and excitingly new. Bernstein’s score – played by the New York Philharmonic and conducted by Gustavo Dudamel in a new arrangement by David Newman – sounds prickly exuberant than ever. The dance, in which Peck’s choreography integrates Robbins’ balletic style into more athletic, asymmetrical forms, explodes from the screen. Adam Stockhausen’s staging design oscillates between the immediacy of a location shoot and the romance of a well-dressed backlot: clotheslines hung with brightly colored linen and the exchange between neighbors via tenement courtyards in the style of a rear window plays a role above all in the staging of group numbers like « America » ​​ » and tonight.  » Paul Tazewell’s costumes – color-coded according to group membership, with the jets in cool colors and the Sharks in warm yellow and red tones – also contribute enormously to the success of ensemble set pieces like the high school dance where Tony and Maria meet first. And the singing, which is trained by Kushner’s Caroline or Change’s musical assistant, Jeanine Tesori, is almost consistently excellent, even with actors who were not previously known for their musical theater styles.

Most importantly, Spielberg is with his usual keen eye for camera position and movement knows how to capture all of this in such a way that it fulfills the most difficult tasks for a filmed musical: the singing and dancing seem to spring organically from the story, with none of the stiffness and claustrophobia that can arise from attempts to pack the flash of a live performance into a frame. The most surprising thing about West Side Story, Spielberg’s most dynamic film in years, is how at home the director seems to be in a genre he’s never worked in before. The balance between realism and stylization the show requires is handled so confidently that one wonders why? he waited until he was 74 to do musicals.

Just like in the 1961 film, perhaps the least dramatically interesting part of the West Side story is the romance between Maria (newcomer Rachel Zegler) and Tony (baby Driver Star Ansel Elgort). Shakespeare understood this well: in order to experience the whole tragedy of the foiled love of Romeo and Juliet, we should find their adolescent infatuation a bit absurd. The text for “Tonight”, an example of the flowery language that Sondheim disavowed (“Tonight, tonight / The world is wild and bright / Going mad, shoot sparks into space”), allows us to experience the young couple’s emotional awakening , even as we anticipate the disenchantment that we know is imminent. The interwoven vocal lines in this song, in which the voices of lovers intersect with those of gangs preparing for their deadly rumble, remain a transcendent example of musical storytelling. Sondheim’s songwriting should take a different direction, but being a part of the making of “Tonight” is hardly a cause for shame. If his contribution to the score as a newcomer in the twenties is in some ways a work of youth literature, then he is uniquely suited to an act driven by the rash of youth.

To the potentially oozing act of lovers a psychological and To give Tony a sociological structure, Kushner provides Tony with a dark backstory: He has just spent a year in prison for beating a member of a rival gang almost to death and has resolved to keep his distance from his own former gang, the Jets. This leads to tension between Tony and his best friend Riff, played by Dear Evan Hansen’s stage veteran Mike Faist with excruciating intensity and movie star charisma.

On the Sharks page, the becoming star is Rachel Zegler, a YouTube star, who was selected by Spielberg from tens of thousands of candidates in an open Cinderella-style casting call when she was only 16 years old. Compared to 23-year-old Natalie Wood in the 1961 film, Zegler reads like a real teenager on screen, with a girlish sweetness tempered by wild intelligence. In comparison, Tony with the soft features looks like a kind of tug, but here, too, the film is not far from its Shakespeare source material: Juliet always had more on the ball than Romeo. As Maria’s brother Bernardo and girlfriend Anita, David Alvarez and Ariana DeBose have a tingly erotic bond, especially when they look in the eyes during the glorious dance-off « America ».

The actors who play Puerto Ricans speak often unsubtitled Spanish, to acknowledge that some of the audience is Spanish-speaking and to emphasize that anyone who feels left out by this undeciphered language could do well to realize that America is a country without a national language. In terms of gender identity, too, the film quietly but persistently moves into the present. The character of the would-be jet Anybody, originally coded as a boyish girl, is played here by the non-binary actress Iris Menas as a trans man who seeks recognition from his would-be colleagues.

Perhaps the most complex expression of the ambivalent reaction the American on the West Side Story is found in the story of Rita Moreno, whose role as Anita in the 1961 film made her the first Latina actress to win an Oscar (and remains the most memorable perfect casting in this generally wildly miscast film) . In a recent interview, Moreno recalled wearing heavy dark makeup and adding a thick accent to appear typical Latina. She also remembers pulling out of the film after feeling uncomfortable with a line in the song « America » ​​that also sparked controversy during the show’s Broadway run: « Puerto Rico, you ugly island / Island of Tropical Diseases « . After a producer unaware of Moreno’s objection to Sondheim labeled the same text as potentially offensive (not to mention, as the New York Times pointed out, imprecise), the copywriter swapped the line for the less derogatory « Puerto Rico, the devotion. » of my heart / Let it sink back into the ocean. ”

Relieved, Moreno sang the revised lyrics, won her Oscar and made no further films in the next seven years. She just couldn’t find a role that didn’t fit some degrading ethnic stereotype – which, despite the brown facial makeup and the Puerto Rican accent, wasn’t her experience with Anita at all. She remembered that time in her life and said, « Anita, believe it or not, the only part I ever remember where I represented Hispanics in a dignified and positive way, » and she remembered also remembered how important the character was to the younger Latinx actor in search of role models. Anita in West Side Story remains one of the defining roles in Moreno’s stellar EGOT-winning career, and one she cherished enough to return to the same material 60 years later as actress and executive producer.

In the remake, Moreno plays the turns 90 the day after the film opens, a new character, Valentina, the Puerto Rican widow of the friendly pharmacy owner who offered shelter and advice to Tony in the 1961 film. The sad ballad « Somewhere », formerly a love duet between Tony and Maria, is given to Valentina as a solo single while the camera wanders through the neighborhood and one after the other shows us the rest of the characters mourning their loss and preparing for their fate to deliver. This perspective changes the meaning of the song completely and turns the “us” of the chorus (“there is a place for us”) not only the two star-loving lovers, but the immigrant community as a whole.

The suggestion of some critics (from who haven’t all seen the new version) that West Side Story is a creaking dinosaur to be struck from the American cultural repertoire seems to this admittedly white critic like an underestimation of the complexities of what The Show has become over the decades Intended for both artists and audiences alike, although it is certainly long overdue for color creators to tell their stories as well. The strength of the new interpretation by Spielberg and Kushner is – besides the simple, overwhelming beauty of music, text and dance – that it finds a new way of asking who could be included in the « we » of this venerable institution , and how and where you can start to find your place.

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