Smoking traditional cigarettes in addition to e-cigarette use results in adverse health effects similar to cigarette-only smoking, according to a new study published today in the American Heart Association’s flagship magazine Circulation.
Smoking, a known association with cardiovascular disease and death, appears to be on the decline. While the use of e-cigarettes, known as vaping, is growing in popularity, there has been limited research into the effects of vaping on the body.
In a large data analysis of more than 7. 100 U. . S.. . In adults aged 18 and over, the researchers examined the association between cigarette smoking and e-cigarette use with inflammation and oxidative stress as biomarkers. Inflammation and oxidative stress are major contributors to smoking-related cardiovascular disease, and their biomarkers have been shown to be predictors of cardiovascular events, including heart attack and heart failure.
This study is among the first to use nationally representative data to examine the relationship between cigarette and e-cigarette behavior and biomarkers for inflammation and oxidative stress. Given the lag time between tobacco exposure and disease symptoms, as well as diagnosis, it is necessary to identify the relationship between e-cigarette use and sensitive biomarkers for subclinical cardiovascular injury in order to understand the long-term effects of newer tobacco products such as e-cigarettes. «
Andrew C. . Stokes, Ph. D, Assistant Professor, First Author, Global Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston
The researchers used data from the PATH (Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health) study, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort in the United States. S.. . The analysis of this study was limited to adults aged 18 and over from wave 1 of the survey, which was carried out from 2013 to 2014 and included the collection of blood and urine samples.
Five biomarkers for inflammation and oxidative stress were analyzed. Participants were divided into four categories based on their traditional cigarette and e-cigarette use over a 30-day period: cigarette and e-cigarette non-use; exclusive vaping; exclusive cigarette smoking; and double use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes. To test the robustness of the initial results, the scientists repeated the analyzes in subsets of respondents, including those who had not used any other tobacco products in the previous 30 days.
More than half of the study participants (58. 6%) did not use cigarettes or e-cigarettes; almost 2% exclusively evaporated; around 30% only smoked cigarettes; and about 10% used e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes.
« This study complements the limited research on biological interventions in individuals who use e-cigarettes, » said study co-author Rose Marie Robertson, M. . D.. . , FAHA, assistant scientific and medical director of the American Heart Association and co-director of the National Institutes of Health / Food and Drug Administration-funded Regulatory Science Tobacco Center, which sponsored the study. « I believe it has an important message for those who believe that using e-cigarettes while continuing to smoke some flammable cigarettes will reduce their risk. This frequently observed dual-use pattern was not associated with lower levels of inflammatory markers and is therefore unlikely to provide a risk reduction in this particular area. «
The researchers also conducted extensive analyzes to test the results against the influence of related behaviors such as the use of other tobacco products and marijuana, as well as second-hand smoke exposure. The results remained consistent across the additional analyzes.
The large population sample of this study makes the results applicable to the U. S.. . adult population. One of the limitations of the study is the cross-sectional approach of looking at population data at a point in time, which makes it impossible to establish causality.
Researchers said the study underscores the importance of continuing to educate the public about the risks of cigarette smoking and the failures of double use to reduce the risk.
« The results could be used to advise patients about the potential risk of using cigarettes and e-cigarettes, » said Stokes. « Some people who smoke cigarettes resort to using e-cigarettes to reduce the frequency with which they smoke cigarettes. They often end up double using both products instead of switching completely from one to the other. If e-cigarettes are used as a means of smoking cessation, cigarette smoking should be completely replaced and a permanent elimination plan for all tobacco products recommended. «
Tags: blood, cardiovascular disease, cigarette, education, frequency, health insurance, heart, myocardial infarction, heart failure, inflammation, nicotine, oxidative stress, pH, public health, research, smoking, stress, tobacco, vaping , Vessel
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Electronic cigarette, tobacco smoking, research
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